Introduction    Indonesia Top of Page
The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; the islands were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to relinquish its colony. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, and controlling avian influenza. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face a low intensity separatist movement in Papua.
   Geography    Indonesia Top of Page
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates:
5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map references:
Southeast Asia
total: 1,919,440 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 2,830 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
54,716 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use:
arable land: 11.03%
permanent crops: 7.04%
other: 81.93% (2005)
Irrigated land:
67,220 sq km (2008)
Total renewable water resources:
2,838 cu km (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 82.78 cu km/yr (8%/1%/91%)
per capita: 372 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires
volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, western Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
   People    Indonesia Top of Page
237,512,352 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 28.4% (male 34,343,198/female 33,175,135)
15-64 years: 65.7% (male 78,330,830/female 77,812,339)
65 years and over: 5.8% (male 6,151,305/female 7,699,548) (2008 est.)
Median age:
total: 27.2 years
male: 26.7 years
female: 27.7 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.175% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
19.24 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
6.24 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

urban population: 44% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities - population:
JAKARTA (capital) 9.121 million; Surabaya 2.509 million; Bandung 2.412 million; Medan 2.131 million; Semarang 1.296 million (2009)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
240 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 31.04 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 36.14 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 25.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.46 years
male: 67.98 years
female: 73.07 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.34 children born/woman (2008 est.)
Health expenditures:
5.5% of GDP (2009)
Physicians density:
0.288 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density:
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2002)
Drinking water source:

urban: 89% of population
rural: 71% of population
total: 80% of population
urban: 11% of population
rural: 29% of population
total: 20% of population (2008)
Sanitation facility access:

urban: 67% of population
rural: 36% of population
total: 52% of population
urban: 33% of population
rural: 64% of population
total: 48% of population (2008)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
310,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
8,300 (2009 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
2.4% (2001)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
19.6% (2007)
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups:
Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)
Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 94%
female: 86.8% (2004 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2009)
Education expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2008)
   Government    Indonesia Top of Page
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
Government type:
name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones
Administrative divisions:
30 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Papua Barat (Irian Jaya Barat), Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, the 465 regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
17 August 1945 (declared)
note: recognized by the Netherlands on 27 December 1949; in August 2005, the Netherlands announced it recognized de facto Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945
National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004),Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president and vice president were elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; last held 20 September 2004 (next to be held on 8 July 2009)
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president receiving 60.6% of vote; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri received 39.4%
Legislative branch:
House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats; members elected to serve five-year terms); House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions; People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) has role in inaugurating and impeaching president and in amending constitution; consists of members of DPR and DPD; MPR does not formulate national policy
elections: last held 5 April 2004 (next to be held on 9 April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - Golkar 21.6%, PDI-P 18.5%, PKB 10.6%, PPP 8.2%, PD 7.5%, PKS 7.3%, PAN 6.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party - Golkar 128, PDI-P 109, PPP 58, PD 55, PAN 53, PKB 52, PKS 45, others 50
note: because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); a separate Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi was invested by the president on 16 August 2003; in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006
Political parties and leaders:
Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [MS KABAN]; Democratic Party or PD [Hadi UTOMO]; Functional Groups Party or Golkar [Yusuf KALLA]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Sutrisno BACHIR]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Tifatul SEMBIRING]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Indonesian Women's Coalition (Koalisi Perempuan - human rights group); Islamic Defenders Front or FPI; National Alliance for Freedom of Religion and Faith; Oil Palm Watch (environmental)
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dino Patti DJALAL
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Scot A. MARCIEL
embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 3435-9922
consulate(s) general: Surabaya
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
National symbol(s):
garuda (mythical bird)
National anthem:

name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)
lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN
note: adopted 1945
   Economy    Indonesia Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has made significant economic advances under the administration of President YUDHOYONO, but faces challenges stemming from the global financial crisis and world economic downturn. Indonesia's debt-to-GDP ratio in recent years has been declined steadily because of increasingly robust GDP growth and sound fiscal stewardship. The government has introduced significant reforms in the financial sector including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and improved capital market supervision. Indonesia's new investment law, passed in March 2007, seeks to address some of the concerns of foreign and domestic investors. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The non-bank financial sector, including pension funds and insurance, remains weak, and despite efforts to broaden and deepen capital markets, they remain underdeveloped. Economic difficulties in early 2008 centered on high global food and oil prices and their impact on Indonesia's poor and on the budget. The onset of the global financial crisis relieved inflation but also brought a host of new problems: a rout in the stock market, a difficult environment for bond issuance, lower prices for Indonesia's commodities exports, and prospects for lower growth overall.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.03 trillion (2010 est.)
$970.6 billion (2009 est.)
$928.2 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$706.7 billion (2010 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
6.1% (2010 est.)
4.6% (2009 est.)
6% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$4,200 (2010 est.)
$4,000 (2009 est.)
$3,900 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13.5%
industry: 45.6%
services: 40.8% (2008 est.)
Labor force:
112 million (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 42.1%
industry: 18.6%
services: 39.3% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7.1% (2010 est.) 7.9% (2009 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 22.2%
male: 21.64%
female: 23.04% (2009)
Population below poverty line:
13.33% (2010)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 29.9% (2009)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
36.8 (2009) 39.4 (2005)
Investment (gross fixed):
32.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
revenues: $90.17 billion
expenditures: $96.87 billion (2008 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
16.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
Public debt:
25.5% of GDP (2010 est.) 27.4% of GDP (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.1% (2010 est.) 4.8% (2009 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
6.37% (31 December 2010) 6.46% (31 December 2009)
note: this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; BI has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
13.252% (31 December 2010 est.) 14.498% (31 December 2009 est.)
note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans
Stock of narrow money:
$67.34 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $54.87 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$274.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $227.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$254.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $212.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$360.4 billion (31 December 2010) $178.2 billion (31 December 2009) $98.76 billion (31 December 2008)
Agriculture - products:
rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
4.3% (2010 est.)
Electricity - production:
141.2 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
126.1 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production:
1.03 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil - consumption:
1.292 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil - exports:
404,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil - imports:
767,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil - proved reserves:
3.99 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
Natural gas - production:
82.8 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
40.47 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
42.33 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
3.001 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
Current account balance:
$6.294 billion (2010 est.) $10.19 billion (2009 est.)
$158.2 billion (2010 est.) $119.6 billion (2009 est.)
Exports - commodities:
oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners:
Japan 20.7%, US 10.2%, Singapore 9.2%, China 8.5%, South Korea 6.6%, Malaysia 4.5%, India 4.3% (2007)
$127.1 billion (2010 est.) $89.5 billion (2009 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Singapore 13.2%, China 11.5%, Japan 8.8%, Malaysia 8.6%, US 6.4%, Thailand 5.8%, Saudi Arabia 4.5%, South Korea 4.3%, Australia 4% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$96.21 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $66.12 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Debt - external:
$196.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $172.9 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$85.58 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $72.84 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$33.08 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $30.18 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -9,169.5 (2010), 10,389.9 (2009), 9,558.1 (2008 est.), 9,056 (2007 est.), 9,159.3 (2006), 9,704.7 (2005), 8,938.9 (2004)
   Communications    Indonesia Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
33.958 million (2009)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
159.248 million (2009)
Telephone system:
general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Broadcast media:
mixture of about a dozen national television networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations operating; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations operating with more than 650 privately-operated (2008)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
54 local TV stations (11 national TV networks; each with its group of local transmitters) (2006)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
1.269 million (2010)
Internet users:
20 million (2009)
   Transportation    Indonesia Top of Page
684 (2010)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 171
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 50
914 to 1,523 m: 64
under 914 m: 34 (2010)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 513
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 484 (2010)
64 (2010)
condensate 812 km; condensate/gas 73 km; gas 7,165 km; oil 5,984 km; oil/gas/water 12 km; refined products 617 km; water 44 km (2010)
total: 5,042 km
narrow gauge: 5,042 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2009)
total: 437,759 km
paved: 258,744 km
unpaved: 179,015 km (2008)
21,579 km (2011)
Merchant marine:
total: 1,244
by type: bulk carrier 95, cargo 601, chemical tanker 57, container 112, liquefied gas 17, passenger 47, passenger/cargo 76, petroleum tanker 214, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 8
foreign-owned: 61 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 7, Malaysia 1, Norway 4, Singapore 42, South Korea 1, Taiwan 1, US 2)
registered in other countries: 87 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, Hong Kong 8, Liberia 4, Mongolia 2, Panama 14, Singapore 53, unknown 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
Banjarmasin, Belawan, Ciwandan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
Transportation - note:
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift
   Military    Indonesia Top of Page
Military branches:
Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines, naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 63,800,825
females age 16-49: 61,729,717 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 52,367,788
females age 16-49: 52,129,123 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 2,181,303
female: 2,110,397 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
3% of GDP (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Indonesia Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; Timor-Leste-Indonesia Boundary Committee has resolved all but a small portion of the land boundary, but discussions on maritime boundaries are stalemated over sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai in the north and alignment with Australian claims in the south; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 left the sovereignty of Unarang rock and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea in dispute; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches
Refugees and internally displaced persons:

IDPs: 200,000-350,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, and Maluku) (2007)
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy

This page was last updated on 24 February 2009


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