Introduction    Luxembourg Top of Page
Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
   Geography    Luxembourg Top of Page
Western Europe, between France and Germany
Geographic coordinates:
49 45 N, 6 10 E
Map references:
total: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
Natural resources:
iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Land use:
arable land: 27.42%
permanent crops: 0.69%
other: 71.89% (includes Belgium) (2005)
Irrigated land:
Total renewable water resources:
1.6 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 0.06 cu km/yr (42%/45%/13%)
per capita: 121 cu m/yr (1999)
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - note:
landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world
   People    Luxembourg Top of Page
491,775 (July 2009 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.5% (male 46,918/female 44,052)
15-64 years: 66.7% (male 165,342/female 162,681)
65 years and over: 14.8% (male 29,839/female 42,943) (2009 est.)
Median age:
total: 39.2 years
male: 38.2 years
female: 40.2 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.172% (2009 est.)
Birth rate:
11.77 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
8.43 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
8.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.56 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.56 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.33 years
male: 76.07 years
female: 82.81 years (2009 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.78 children born/woman (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
fewer than 500 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2003 est.)
noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg
Ethnic groups:
Luxembourger 63.1%, Portuguese 13.3%, French 4.5%, Italian 4.3%, German 2.3%, other EU 7.3%, other 5.2% (2000 census)
Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000)
Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
3.4% of GDP (1999)
   Government    Luxembourg Top of Page
Country name:
conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg
Government type:
constitutional monarchy
name: Luxembourg
geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
1839 (from the Netherlands)
National holiday:
National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June; note - the actual date of birth was 23 January 1896, but the festivities were shifted by five months to allow observance during a more favorable time of year
17 October 1868; occasional revisions
Legal system:
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 20 January 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections: the monarch is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
note: government coalition - CSV and LSAP
Legislative branch:
unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 13 June 2004 (next to be held by June 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 36.1%, LSAP 23.4%, DP 16.1%, Green Party 11.6%, ADR 10%, other 2.8%; seats by party - CSV 24, LSAP 14, DP 10, Green Party 7, ADR 5
note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister
Judicial branch:
judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
Political parties and leaders:
Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Robert MEHLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Francois BILTGEN]; Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]; dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left); other minor parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jean-Paul SENNINGER
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171/72
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ann WAGNER
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: [352] 46 01 23
FAX: [352] 46 14 01
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France
   Economy    Luxembourg Top of Page
Economy - overview:
This stable, high-income economy - benefiting from its proximity to France, Belgium, and Germany - has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 28% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign owned and have extensive foreign dealings. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for about 60% of its labor force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, suffered from the global economic slump in the early part of this decade, the country continues to enjoy an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks third in the world, after Liechtenstein and Qatar. After two years of strong economic growth in 2006-07, turmoil in the world financial markets slowed Luxembourg's economy in 2008, but growth remained above the European average and is likely to remain so in 2009.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$39.42 billion (2008 est.)
$39.18 billion (2007)
$37.51 billion (2006)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$57.61 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.6% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$81,100 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 0.4%
industry: 13.6%
services: 86% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
207,100 of whom 125,400 are foreign cross-border workers commuting primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 17.2%
services: 80.6% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.7% (2008 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26 (2005)
Investment (gross fixed):
19.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
Public debt:
7.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (2008 est.)
Stock of money:
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the Euro Area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders
Stock of quasi money:
Stock of domestic credit:
$357.9 billion (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$166.1 billion (31 December 2007)
Agriculture - products:
wine, grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy products, livestock products
banking and financial services, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
1.7% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
3.01 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
6.748 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports:
2.887 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports:
6.847 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption:
60,640 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - exports:
281.5 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports:
63,760 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
1.329 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
1.329 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
$3.186 billion (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
Exports - partners:
Germany 21.1%, France 16.3%, Belgium 10.1%, Italy 7.4%, UK 7.1%, Netherlands 5.4%, Spain 5% (2007)
$28.12 billion c.i.f. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities:
minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
Imports - partners:
Belgium 27.4%, Germany 23.8%, China 17.1%, France 9.2%, Netherlands 5% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$205.5 million (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6734 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004)
   Communications    Luxembourg Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
248,200 (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
604,200 (2007)
Telephone system:
general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
domestic: fixed line teledensity over 50 per 100 persons; nationwide cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated
international: country code - 352 (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
5 (1999)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
180,756 (2008)
Internet users:
345,000 (2007)
   Transportation    Luxembourg Top of Page
2 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
1 (2007)
gas 155 km (2008)
total: 275 km
standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (243 km electrified) (2006)
total: 5,227 km
paved: 5,227 km (includes 147 km of expressways) (2004)
37 km (on Moselle River) (2008)
Merchant marine:
total: 45
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 3, chemical tanker 15, container 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 9
foreign-owned: 44 (Belgium 7, Denmark 1, France 17, Germany 5, Netherlands 2, UK 8, US 4)
registered in other countries: 1 (Ukraine 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
   Military    Luxembourg Top of Page
Military branches:
Army (2009)
Military service age and obligation:
17-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; soldiers under 18 are not deployed into combat or with peacekeeping missions; no conscription; Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 116,305
females age 16-49: 114,566 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 95,840
females age 16-49: 94,641 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 3,170
female: 2,995 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures:
0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Luxembourg Top of Page
Disputes - international:

This page was last updated on 2 April 2009


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