MONACO

MARCH 25, 2009 BY RANG WHAM
   Introduction    Monaco Top of Page
Background:
The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling Grimaldi family first seized temporary control in 1297, and again in 1331, but were not able to permanently secure their holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.
   Geography    Monaco Top of Page
Location:
Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy
Geographic coordinates:
43 44 N, 7 24 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 2 sq km
land: 2 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total: 4.4 km
border countries: France 4.4 km
Coastline:
4.1 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 12 nm
Climate:
Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers
Terrain:
hilly, rugged, rocky
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Agel 140 m
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (urban area) (2005)
Irrigated land:
NA
Natural hazards:
NA
Environment - current issues:
NA
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
second-smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban
   People    Monaco Top of Page
Population:
32,965 (July 2010 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.6% (male 2,466/female 2,349)
15-64 years: 62.4% (male 10,184/female 10,395)
65 years and over: 23% (male 3,068/female 4,503) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 48.9 years
male: 48 years
female: 49.9 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.394% (2010 est.)
Birth rate:
9.1 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Death rate:
12.74 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
Net migration rate:
7.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Urbanization:
urban population: 100% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.055 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.77 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 80.09 years
male: 76.3 years
female: 84.09 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.5 children born/woman (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Nationality:
noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
adjective: Monegasque or Monacan
Ethnic groups:
French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%
Languages:
French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
Education expenditures:
4.4% of GDP (2004)
   Government    Monaco Top of Page
Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
local short form: Monaco
Government type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
name: Monaco
geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are four quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo
Independence:
1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of Grimaldi)
National holiday:
National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)
Constitution:
17 December 1962; modified 2 April 2002
Legal system:
based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)
head of government: Minister of State Michel ROGER (since 29 March 2010)
cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members elected by list majority system, 8 by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 3 February 2008 (next to be held in February 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - UPM 52.2%, REM 40.5%, Monaco Together 7.3%; seats by party - UPM 21, REM 3
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council)
Political parties and leaders:
Monaco Together; Rally and Issues for Monaco or REM; Union for Monaco or UPM (including National Union for the Future of Monaco or UNAM)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
CE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador to the US and Representative to the UN Gilles NOGHES
chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Suite 2K-100, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 234-1530
FAX: (202) 552-5778
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US ambassador to France, handles routine diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors are those of the ruling House of Grimaldi and have been in use since 1339, making the flag one of the world's oldest national banners
note: similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red
   Economy    Monaco Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Monaco, bordering France on the Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The principality also is a major banking center and has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.
GDP (purchasing power parity):

$976.3 million (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$NA
GDP - real growth rate:

NA% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):

$30,000 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 0%
industry: 4.9%
services: 95.1% (2005)
Labor force:
44,000
note: includes workers from all foreign countries (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:
0% (2005)
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget:
revenues: $863 million
expenditures: $920.6 million (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.9% (2000)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Agriculture - products:
none
Industries:
tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products
Industrial production growth rate:
NA%
Electricity - consumption:
NA kWh
Electricity - imports:
NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by France
Exports:
$716.3 million (2005)
note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
Imports:
$916.1 million (2005)
note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
Debt - external:
$18 billion (2000 est.)
Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7338 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005)
   Communications    Monaco Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
35,000 (2008)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
22,000 (2008)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 100%
international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM NA, shortwave 8 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
5 (1998)
Broadcast media:
TV Monte-Carlo (TMC) operates a TV network; Radio Monte-Carlo has both an Italian-language and a French-language network; a few private radio stations operating (2008)
Internet country code:
.mc
Internet hosts:
23,621 (2010)
Internet users:
23,000 (2009)
   Transportation    Monaco Top of Page
Heliports:
1 (2010)
Roadways:
total: 50 km
paved: 50 km (2007)
Merchant marine:

registered in other countries: 68 (Bahamas 14, Bermuda 2, Comoros 1, Cyprus 1, Liberia 10, Marshall Islands 21, Norway 1, Panama 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Vanuatu 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
Monaco
   Military    Monaco Top of Page
Military branches:
no regular military forces; the Palace Guard performs ceremonial duties
Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 5,749 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 4,629
females age 16-49: 4,597 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 153
female: 141 (2010 est.)
Military-note:
defense is the responsibility of France
   Transnational Issues    Monaco Top of Page
Disputes-international:
none

This page was last updated on 14 May 2009


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