Introduction    Montenegro Top of Page
The use of the name Montenegro began in the 15th century when the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta; over subsequent centuries Montenegro was able to maintain its independence from the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro became a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. After World War I, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally declare its independence on 3 June 2006.
   Geography    Montenegro Top of Page
Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Geographic coordinates:
42 30 N, 19 18 E
Map references:
total: 13,812 sq km
land: 13,452 sq km
water: 360 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total: 625 km
border countries: Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Kosovo 79 km, Serbia 124 km
293.5 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: defined by treaty
Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
Natural resources:
bauxite, hydroelectricity
Land use:
arable land: 13.7%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 85.3%
Irrigated land:
22 sq km (2008)
Total renewable water resources:
11.58 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: NA
per capita: NA
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
strategic location along the Adriatic coast
   People    Montenegro Top of Page
661,807 (July 2011 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.5% (male 50,060/female 52,823)
15-64 years: 71% (male 244,057/female 225,620)
65 years and over: 13.5% (male 35,551/female 53,696) (2011 est.)
Median age:
total: 37.8 years
male: 36.5 years
female: 39.2 years (2011 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.705% (2011 est.)
Birth rate:
11 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate:
8.89 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate:
-9.2 migrant (s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
urban population: 61% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities - population:
PODGORICA (capital) 144,000 (2009)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.072 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
15 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 6.52 deaths/1000 live births
male: 7.53 deaths/1000 live births
female: 5.45 deaths/1000 live births (2011 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.46 years
male: 71.45 years
female: 79.82 years (2000 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.67 children born/women (2009)
Health expenditures:
8.9% of GDP (2009)
Physicians density:
2 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density:
4 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source:

urban: 100% of population
rural: 96% of population
total: 98% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 4% of population
total: 2% of population (2008)
Sanitation facility access:

urban: 96% of population
rural: 86% of population
total: 92% of population
urban: 4% of population
rural: 14% of population
total: 8% of population (2008)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne disease: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (2009)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
2.2% (2006)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.014% (2009)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
388 (2009)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2009)
noun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin
Ethnic groups:
Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Muslims, Croats, Roma (Gypsy)) 12% (2003 census)
Orthodox 74.2%, Muslim 17.7%, Catholic 3.5%, other 0.6%, unspecified 3%, atheist 1% (2003 census)
Serbian 63.6%, Montenegrin (official) 22%, Bosnian 5.5%, Albanian 5.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2003 census)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.7%
male: 99.24%
female: 96.14% (2007)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Education expenditures:
7.1% of GDP (2000)
   Government    Montenegro Top of Page
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Crna Gora
former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
Government type:
name: Podgorica
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
21 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
3 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)
National holiday:
National Day, 13 July (1878)
approved 19 October 2007 (by the Assembly)
Legal system:
civil law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Igor LUKSIC (since 29 December 2010)
cabinet: Ministries act as cabinet
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 April 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly
election results: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; Filip VUJANOVIC 51.9%, Andrija MANDIC 19.6%, Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC 16.6%, Srdan MILIC 11.9%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly (81 seats; members elected by direct vote to serve four-year terms; note - seats increased from 74 seats in 2006)
elections: last held on 29 March 2009 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 51.94%, SNP 16.83%, NOVA 9.22%, PZP 6.03%, other (including Albanian minority parties) 15.98%; seats by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 48, SNP 16, NOVA 8, PZP 5, Albanian minority parties 4
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (five judges serve nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure)
Political parties and leaders:
Albanian Alternative or AA [Vesel SINISHTAJ]; Coalition for European Montenegro (bloc) [Milo DJUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC], Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC], Bosniak Party of BS [Rafet HUSOVIC], and Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC); Coalition SNP-NS-DSS (bloc) (includes Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC], People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC], and Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]); Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity or SPP [Mehmet BARDHIJ]; Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Ferhat DINOSHA]; For a Different Montenegro (bloc) [Goran BATRICEVIC] (includes Democratic Center or DC [Goran BATRICEVIC] and Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC]); FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]; Movement for Changes or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]; National Coalition (includes People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC] and Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]); New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]; Socialist People's Party of Montenegro or SNP [Srdjan MILIC]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Srdjan DARMANOVIC
chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Benjamin LOWENTHAL
embassy: Ljubljanska bb, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [382] 81 225 417
FAX: [382] 81 241 358
Flag description:
a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is symbol of episcopal authority and harks back to the three and a half centuries that Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy
National symbol(s):
double-headed eagle
National anthem:

name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC
note: adopted 2004; the anthem's music is based on a Montenegrin folk song
   Economy    Montenegro Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and maintained its own central bank, adopted the Deutchmark, then the euro - rather than the Yugoslav dinar - as official currency, collected customs tariffs, and managed its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF. Montenegro is pursuing its own membership in the World Trade Organization and signed a Stabilization and Association agreement with the European Union in October 2007. The European Council granted candidate country status to Montenegro at the December 2010 session. Unemployment and regional disparities in development are key political and economic problems. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector. The global financial crisis has had a significant negative impact on the economy, due to the ongoing credit crunch, a decline in the real estate sector, and a fall in aluminum exports.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$6.724 billion (2010 est.)
$6.653 billion (2009 est.)
$7.055 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$4.017 billion (2010 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.1% (2010 est.)
-5.7% (2009 est.)
6.9% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$10,100 (2010 est.)
$9,900 (2009 est.)
$10,400 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force:
259,100 (2004)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 30%
services: 68% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
14.7% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
7% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 24.1% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
30 (2008) 30 (2003)
Investment (gross fixed):
30.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA
Public debt:
38% of GDP (2006)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.4% (2007)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.53% (31 December 2010 est.) 9.36% (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$816.8 million (31 December 2008) $1.172 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of broad money:
$1.406 billion (31 December 2008) $1.446 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit:
$3.29 billion (31 December 2009) $3.771 billion (31 December 2008)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$3.604 billion (31 December 2010) $4.289 billion (31 December 2009) $2.863 billion (31 December 2008)
Agriculture - products:
tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep
steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
0.6% (2002), 2.4% (2003), 13.8% (2004), -1.9% (2005)
Electricity - production:
2.66 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
2.474 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2009 est.)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil - consumption:
4,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil - imports:
3,149 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
NA cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
Current account balance:
-$1.102 billion (2007 est.)
$171.3 million (2003)
Exports - commodities:
Manufactured goods, raw materials, agricultural produce
Exports - partners:
Italy 27.9%, Greece 21.6%, Slovenia 11.3%, Hungary 8.5%, US 7.6%, Egypt 4.8% (2009)
$601.7 million (2003)
Imports - commodities:
fuels and lubricants, machinery and transport, chemicals, manufactured goods
Imports - partners:
Italy 17.2%, Slovenia 14.4%, Germany 9.9%, China 7.8%, Austria 7.7%, Russia 6.1%, Greece 4%, Hungary 4% (2009)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Debt - external:
$650 million (2006)
Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -0.755 (2010),0.72 (2009),0.6827 (2008),0.7345 (2007),0.7964 (2006)
   Communications    Montenegro Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
169,500 (2010)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1.17 million (2010)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing
international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system
Broadcast media:
state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial television networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; roughly a dozen privately-owned TV broadcasters operate networks nationally, regionally, and locally; in addition to the 2 state-owned national radio networks, roughly 50 privately-owned radio stations and networks broadcast (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
FM 6 (national), FM 20 (regional)
Television broadcast stations:
2 public televisions (RTCG 1 & RTCG 2), 1 satellite TV, 8 privated televisions, 5 local televisions
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
6,247 (2010)
Internet users:
280,000 (2009)
   Transportation    Montenegro Top of Page
5 (2010)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2010)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)
1 (2010)
total: 250 km
standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (169 km electrified) (2010)
total: 7,624 km
paved: 5,097 km
unpaved: 2,527 km (2010)
Merchant marine:
total: 2
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 1
registered in other countries: 5 (Bahamas 2, Honduras 2, Slovakia 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
   Military    Montenegro Top of Page
Military branches:
Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2011)
Military service age and obligation:
compulsory national military service abolished August 2006
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: NA
females age 16-49: NA
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 149,159
females age 16-49: 131,823 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 3,120
female: 3,677 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
1.5% of GDP (2008)
   Transnational Issues    Montenegro Top of Page
Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 7,000 (Kosovo); note - mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999
IDPs: 16,192 (ethnic conflict in 1999 and riots in 2004) (2007)

This page was last updated on 14 May 2009


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