TAJIKISTAN

MARCH 25, 2009 BY RANG WHAM
   Introduction    Tajikistan Top of Page
Background:
The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed Tajik SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Sughd province. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992-97. There have been no major security incidents in recent years, although the country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community since the beginning of the NATO intervention in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development and security assistance, which could create jobs and strengthen stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace.
   Geography    Tajikistan Top of Page
Location:
Central Asia, west of China
Geographic coordinates:
39 00 N, 71 00 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 143,100 sq km
land: 141,510 sq km
water: 2,590 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrain:
Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
Natural resources:
hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use:
arable land: 6.52%
permanent crops: 0.89%
other: 92.59% (2005)
Irrigated land:
7,220 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
99.7 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 11.96 cu km/yr (4%/5%/92%)
per capita: 1,837 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
earthquakes; floods
Environment - current issues:
inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
   People    Tajikistan Top of Page
Population:
7,487,489 (July 2010 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 34.1% (male 1,300,221/female 1,255,316)
15-64 years: 62.4% (male 2,313,460/female 2,357,496)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 110,807/female 150,189) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 22.2 years
male: 21.7 years
female: 22.7 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.852% (2010 est.)
Birth rate:
26.49 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Death rate:
6.72 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Urbanization:
urban population: 26% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 39.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 44.55 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 34.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.68 years
male: 62.63 years
female: 68.88 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.94 children born/woman (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.3% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
10,000 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 500 (2007 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2009)
Nationality:
noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups:
Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
Languages:
Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2% (2000 census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 10 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
3.4% of GDP (2006)
   Government    Tajikistan Top of Page
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 35 N, 68 48 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* [Gorno-Badakhshan] (Khorugh), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Independence:
9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Constitution:
6 November 1994
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON 79.3%, Olimjon BOBOEV 6.2%, other 14.5%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; members serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 28 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2015); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 28 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2015)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 71%, Islamic Revival Party 8.2%, CPT 7%, APT 5.1%, PER 5.1%, other 3.6%; seats by party - PDPT 55, Islamic Revival Party 2, CPT 2, APT 2, PER 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir QARAQULOV]; Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV (imprisoned October 2005); Rahmatullo VALIYEV, deputy]; Islamic Revival Party [Muhiddin KABIRI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimjon BOBOEV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Mirhuseyn NARZIEV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders:

splinter parties recognized by the government but not by the base of the party: Democratic Party or DPT [Masud SOBIROV] (splintered from ISKANDAROV's DPT); Socialist Party or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV] (splintered from NARZIEV's SPT)
unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]
International organization participation:
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdujabbor SHIRINOV
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth GROSS
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
Flag description:
three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic word "seven" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness
National anthem:

name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Suleiman YUDAKOV
note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics
   Economy    Tajikistan Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, nearly half of the labor force works abroad, primarily in Russia and Kazakhstan, supporting families in Tajikistan through remittances. The exact number of labor migrants is unknown, but estimated at around 1 million. Less than 7% of the land area is arable. Cotton is the most important crop, but this sector is burdened with debt and obsolete infrastructure. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, corruption, weak governance, seasonal power shortages, and the external debt burden. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002, including a $250 million write-off of Tajikistan's $300 million debt. Completion of the Sangtuda I hydropower dam - finished in 2009 with Russian investment - and the Sangtuda II and Rogun dams will add substantially to electricity output. If finished according to Tajik plans, Rogun will be the world's tallest dam. Tajikistan has also received substantial infrastructure development loans from the Chinese government to improve roads and an electricity transmission network. To help increase north-south trade, the US funded a $36 million bridge which opened in August 2007 and links Tajikistan and Afghanistan. While Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997, more than half of the population continues to live in poverty. Economic growth reached 10.6% in 2004, but dropped below 8% in 2005-08, as the effects of higher oil prices and then the international financial crisis began to register - mainly in the form of lower prices for key export commodities and lower remittances from Tajiks working abroad, due to the global economic downturn. In 2009 GDP growth dropped to 3.4% as a result of the world recession.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$13.8 billion (2009 est.)
$13.34 billion (2008 est.)
$12.37 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$4.741 billion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.4% (2009 est.)
7.9% (2008 est.)
7.8% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,800 (2009 est.)
$1,900 (2008 est.)
$1,700 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20.1%
industry: 22.2%
services: 57.7% (2009 est.)
Labor force:
2.1 million (2009)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 49.8%
industry: 12.8%
services: 37.4% (2009 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.2% (2009 est.) 2.3% (2008 est.)
note: official rates; actual unemployment is higher
Population below poverty line:
60% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 25.6% (2007 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32.6 (2006) 34.7 (1998)
Investment (gross fixed):
5% of GDP (2009 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $1.22 billion
expenditures: $1.2 billion (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.5% (2009 est.) 20.5% (2008 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
NA% (31 December 2008) 15% (31 December 2007)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
23.1% (31 December 2008)
Stock of narrow money:
$656.1 million (31 December 2008) $643.5 million (31 December 2007)
Stock of broad money:
$235.3 million (31 December 2008) $278.3 million (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit:
$889 million (31 December 2008) $NA (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Agriculture - products:
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries:
aluminum, zinc, lead; chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Industrial production growth rate:
-6.3% (2009 est.)
Electricity - production:
16.1 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
16.7 billion kWh (2009)
Electricity - exports:
1 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports:
667.8 million kWh (2009 est.)
Oil - production:
238 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption:
36,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports:
349 bbl/day
Oil - imports:
10,100 bbl/day (2008)
Oil - proved reserves:
12 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
Natural gas - production:
16.1 million cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
266.1 million cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
250 million cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
Current account balance:
-$192 million (2009 est.) $47.6 million (2008 est.)
Exports:
$1.115 billion (2009 est.) $1.575 billion (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities:
aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners:
Netherlands 36.7%, Turkey 26.5%, Russia 8.6%, Iran 6.6%, China 5.7%, Uzbekistan 5.1% (2008)
Imports:
$2.879 billion (2009 est.) $3.699 billion (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities:
electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Russia 32.3%, China 11.9%, Kazakhstan 8.8%, Uzbekistan 4.7% (2008)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$351 million (31 December 2009 est.) $195 million (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external:
$1.691 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $1.503 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$100.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $93.05 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$16 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $12.47 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Exchange rates:
Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar - 4.3813 (2009), 3.4563 (2008), 3.4418 (2007), 3.3 (2006), 3.1166 (2005)
   Communications    Tajikistan Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
360,000 (2008)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
3.5 million (2009)
Telephone system:
general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital more than 90% complete by 2009
domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998 while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita) (2009)
Radio broadcast stations:
16 (number of licensed stations with only about 10 broadcasting) (2009)
Television broadcast stations:
24 (number of licensed stations with only about 15 active) (2009)
Broadcast media:
state-run television broadcaster transmits nationally on 4 stations and regionally on 4 stations; about 10 independent TV stations broadcast locally and regionally; some households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite; state-run radio broadcaster operates Radio Tajikistan, Voice of Dushanbe, and several regional stations; a small number of independent radio stations also broadcast (2008)
Internet country code:
.tj
Internet hosts:
987 (2009)
Internet users:
600,000 (2008)
   Transportation    Tajikistan Top of Page
Airports:
26 (2009)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2009)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 7 (2009)
Pipelines:
gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2009)
Railways:
total: 680 km
broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2008)
Roadways:
total: 27,767 km (2000)
Waterways:
200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2008)
   Military    Tajikistan Top of Page
Military branches:
Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2010)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2007)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,980,012
females age 16-49: 1,990,084 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,461,896
females age 16-49: 1,642,240 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 77,585
female: 75,201 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
3.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Tajikistan Top of Page
Disputes-international:
in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
Trafficking in persons:

current situation: Tajikistan is a source country for women trafficked through Kyrgyzstan and Russia to the UAE, Turkey, and Russia for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; men are trafficked to Russia and Kazakhstan for the purpose of forced labor, primarily in the construction and agricultural industries; boys and girls are trafficked internally for various purposes, including forced labor and forced begging
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Tajikistan is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking, especially efforts to investigate, prosecute, convict, and sentence traffickers; despite evidence of low- and mid-level officials' complicity in trafficking, the government did not punish any public officials for trafficking complicity during 2007; lack of capacity and poor coordination between government institutions remained key obstacles to effective anti-trafficking efforts (2008)
Illicit drugs:
major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates

This page was last updated on 14 May 2009


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